I’ve been working on some Henry James material, and reading Jayne Joso. Meanwhile, here’s a brief seasonal etymological note…
I’m quite partial to cake, and with the Christmas variety looming I was thinking about dried fruit. It occurred to me that I didn’t really know the difference between raisins, sultanas and currants – so I looked them up in the OED [Collins and Chambers provided extra material]:
A grape partially dried in sunlight or by artificial means, esp. used as an ingredient in cooking or in the production of wine.
First recorded use:
1302–3 …ij fraellis de fyges et Reysingis.
c1330 (▸?c1300) Reinbrun (Auch.) in J. Zupitza Guy of Warwick (1891) 632 (MED), Þai brouȝte..Fykes, reisyn, dates.
Etymology: < Anglo-Norman reisin, reysin… etc., grape, cluster of grapes (c1130), dried grape (first half of the 14th cent.; French raisin ) < post-classical Latin racimus (a1310 in a British source) < classical Latin racēmus [Greek ‘rhax, rhagos’, grape, berry] It is uncertain whether the following earlier example should be interpreted as showing the Anglo-Norman or the Middle English word:
1278 in J. T. Fowler Extracts Acct. Rolls Abbey of Durham (1899) II. 486 In..ficubus, Raycinys, et novem lagenis vini.
Its pronunciation as a homophone of reason (i.e. in modern English /ˈriːz(ə)n/ ) is exemplified by puns in Shakespeare [and]… is still defended by Webster in 1828; it survived longest in U.S. regional usage (southern and south midland), where it is recorded as rare but current in c1960 ( Dict. Amer. Regional Eng. s.v. raisin).
In full, sultana raisin: A kind of small seedless raisin produced in the neighbourhood of Smyrna and other parts of Turkey, Greece, and Australia.
Etymology: < Italian sultana (Spanish sultana, Portuguese sultana) feminine of sultano sultan [as in ruler of Turkey, from Arabic for ruler, king, or Aramaic, shultana, power] First recorded use in OED: 1841; with primary meaning of ‘wife or concubine of a sultan’, first recorded use was in 1585.
- The raisin or dried fruit prepared from a dwarf seedless variety of grape, grown in the Levant; much used in cookery and confectionery.
Etymology: Originally raisins of Corauntz, Anglo-Norman raisins de Corauntz, = French raisins de Corinthe raisins of Corinth [port in Greece from where they originally came]; reduced before 1500 to corauntz, coraunce, whence the later corantes, currants, and corans, currence, currans (found in literature to c1750, and still dial.). Some of the 16th cent. herbalists restored the original form Corinth, which has been affected by some writers down to the 19th cent.
First recorded use in OED: 1334; ?c1390 Lat it seeth togedre with powdor-fort of gynger..with raysons of Coraunte. a1616 Shakespeare, Winter’s Tale (1623 edn) iv. iii. 37 Three pound of Sugar, fiue pound of Currence, Rice.
While on the subject of food names, here’s
FILBERT: a. The fruit or nut of the cultivated hazel ( Corylus avellana).
Etymology: probably short for filbert-nut (i.e. Philibert-nut), dialect French noix de filbert (Moisy Dict. Patois Normand) from being ripe near St. Philibert’s day, Aug. 22 (O.S.) [St Filbert was a 7C Frankish abbot; cf OHG filu-berht, very bright]. Compare German Lamberts-nuss. First recorded use in OED: c. 1400