It’s the day after the autumn equinox, and the weather is performing on cue – strong winds and grey skies. So here’s an eclectic post about words, mostly. Warning: spider image looming.
My subscription to OED’s ‘word of the day’ service turned up this beauty recently:
[‘ Of an animal, esp. a spider: living concealed in a hole.’] OED online (source of all the lexical data here)
Etymology: < French latébricole, adjective (1870 or earlier designating insects; also as noun denoting a group of spiders…< classical Latin latebricola person who skulks in concealment < latebra (see latebra n.)
[< classical Latin latebra hiding place, hidden place, recess < latēre to be hidden (see latent adj.) + -bra, feminine form corresponding to -brum, suffix forming instrumental nouns + -cola < classical Latin -cola inhabitant, < colere to inhabit (see cult n.)
A hiding place; a place of refuge or concealment. In natural history: a winter refuge, a hibernaculum, a pupal cell, etc. Now rare.
There follows this rather verbose citation for its use:
1652 J. Jones Lawyers Unmask’d 35: The second Statute..granted a Capias to ferret out such Latitants out of such Latebras.
Now that’s just showing off your recondite vocabulary. Let’s look at some of it:
latitant, adj. (and n.)
That lies concealed or hid; lurking; latent; (of an animal) hibernating.
1646 Sir T. Browne Pseudodoxia Epidemica iii. xxi. 163 Lizards, Snails, and divers other insects latitant many moneths in the yeare. [Sir Thomas Browne was a great coiner of new words; he’s no. 71 in the league table of sources for citations in the OED, with 4155 in total, of which 776 represented the first evidence of the word. I wrote a piece about his Religio Medici and Urne-buriall a couple of years ago. He also popped up in my ‘Disiecta Membra’ post (also about words) the year before as the source for that useful term sarcophagy.]
Back to ‘latitant’:
One who is in hiding. (Cf. latitat n.)
Next from that Jones 1652 citation: capias
Latin capias ‘thou mayest take’.
A writ or process commanding the officer to take the body of the person named in it, that is, to arrest him; also called writ of capias.
The term Capias includes writs of various kinds; capias ad respondendum, to enforce attendance at court; capias ad satisfaciendum, after judgement, to imprison the defendant, until the plaintiff’s claim is satisfied; capias utlagatum, to arrest an outlawed person; capias in Withernam, to seize the cattle or goods of any one who has made an unlawful distraint
That last item, Withernam takes us to this entry in OED online:
- In an action of replevin, the reprisal of other goods in lieu of those taken by a first distress and eloigned; also, the writ (called capias in withernam) commanding the sheriff to take the reprisal.
Etymology: Law French (in Britton wythernam ), presumably < Old Norse viðrnám recorded only in the sense ‘resistance’ (but compare early Danish vedernam pledge)…The etymological meaning is ‘reprisal’.
- A process of distress (or arrest) for debt, formerly current in the Cinque Ports (and other towns).
This is like Russian dolls: each entry generates another search –
The restoration to or recovery by a person of goods or chattels distrained or confiscated, upon giving a surety to have the matter tried in a court of justice and to return the goods if the case is lost. Now U.S. (chiefly hist.). Derived from Anglo-Norman legalese.
Back again to that show-offy Jones 1652 citation: there latebra is just a synonym for where we started: LATEBRICOLE – definition above. Citations include:
1912 N.E.D. at Theraphose, Of or pertaining to the Theraphosæ, a division of latebricole spiders, as the mygalids and trap-door spiders.
Note: mygalids include the bird-eating spider (American tarantula). Wouldn’t want one of those in the bathtub…Back to citations; I liked this one:
2009 W. Penn Love in Time of Flowers viii. 497 He was at no other place than the very one I deducted he’d be.., a lair within a hole though not as latebricole as a mole.
See the Phrontistery website, a repository of obscure words and meanings, for a list of more rarities beginning with L.
Phrontistery, btw, means ‘a thinking place’, from the Greek phrontisterion, from phrontistes, a thinker, from phroneein, to think.
This trapdoor spider image is a still from a 1-minute YouTube video by cinead 84; if you’re not arachnophobic it’s worth a look – a man and a woman try to coax the little critter out of his hole with endearments. Spider remains unimpressed.
PS this image of Sir Thomas Browne and his wife Dorothy (via Wikipedia) was painted by
Joan Carlile (around 1641-50). She was one of the first women to make a professional living as an artist. She and her husband, one of Charles I’s courtiers, lived at Petersham, on the edge of Richmond Park, SW of London.
Coincidentally I lodged for some months with the then vicar of Petersham when I was training to teach in Roehampton – didn’t know at the time that this illustrious painter (and husband) are buried in the churchyard beside the vicarage where I was living. Occasionally Desmond Tutu’s son Trevor, who was studying at Imperial College, London at the time, visited the vicar, a friend of his father’s. We had a beer together several times, and a rather strange party at which he cooked mussels. The vicar was away at the time.
A Google search turned up stories that suggest he’s had a troubled life since those heady student days in London in the 70s.